Difference between saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solution?

According to my book, saturated solution contains max. amount of solute for a given amount of solvent @ constant temp. What's does it mean by max. amount of solute? As for unsaturated, the book says that it's a solution containing less solute than saturated, so is that kinda the same thing as diluted solution? As for saturated, how does a solution contain more solute than it theoretically should? Is it only supersaturated after adding a seed crystal? Is it still supersaturated after crystallization? And what does unsaturated and supersaturated mean in terms of rate of solvation and rate of crystallization?

Answer:
The definition of saturated from your textbook is good. Basically what it means is that the spaces between the molecules of solvent that normally WOULD be open to holding the solute in solution are all filled. So adding any more solute, at whatever temperature you have, wouldn't do any good, and it would just fall right out of solution.

Yes, Unsaturated = dilute.

Supersaturated means that something holds more solute than it should at a given temperature. One way to do this is to saturate a solution, then heat it up. Then you add more solute, and that will go close to saturating the solution again. When you cool it back down to the original temperature, the solute will remain in solution because it doesn't have a mold to form onto - basically, it doesn't know how to recrystalize, so it stays in solution, and that means you have a supersaturated solution.

If you add one single crystal of your solute to your supersaturated solution, it'll precipitate the excess out.

Rate of crystalization is higher in supersaturated solutions. Rate of solvation is lower - in fact, it's zero.
Saturated means that if you add more solute it will not dissolve under normal conditions (in other words 1 atm, 68F etc). This implies that the rate of dissolution is in equilibrium with the rate of resolution or that the solute is being solvated as fast as the solute molecules are recombining to their original state.

Unsaturated of course means that more solute will still dissolve in the solvent.

Supersaturated is a state where the rate of solvation of the the solute is sped up by heating or pressurizing or some other means allowing a larger amount of solute to be dissolved in the solvent than under normal conditions. A supersaturated solution will maintain its current level of solvation for a given amount of time or until something is added to disturb the solute molecules causing them to resolve out of solution. At that time an amount will leave solution equal to the excess above the normal level of saturation that was present in the supersaturated solution.

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