Which atom bears the negative end of the bond dipole in each of the following bonds?


Please tell me how you found this out too?

I-H --- > I has negative end. Iodine has one less electron than needed to form a closed shell while hydrogen needs one too. The electron affinity of iodine is however more than that of the hydrogen.

B-Cl ---> Cl has negative end. Similar reason as above.

Al-P ----> P has the negative end.
Aluminum happens to have three extra electrons. Luckily, every phosphorus atom is looking to gain three electrons. It's a perfect match! They have a bond with six electrons. That bond is known as a triple bond. When a bond has two electrons it is a single bond. When a bond has four electrons it is a double bond.

all are more electronegative
I, Cl, and P are the negative end for each bond.
Your answer is in the electronegativity of each atom (the higher the electronegativity the more the atom wants the electrons.)
The trend on the Periodic Table is High on the top right and decreases as you head down to the left.
I is 2.5 H is 2.1.. I wins!
B is 2.0 Cl is 3.. Cl wins!
Al is 1.5 and P is 2.1. P wins!
The numbers came from a teacher that liked the 4.0 scale that grades are based off of. With that F is the most electronegative so F got that 4.0.
Find an elecronegativity chart that you can use and look at so you know what you are doing if you run into more of these.
Good Luck!

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