Besides helium, what else can i put in a balloon to make it rise?
The acronym 4H MEDIC ANNA is used to remember what gases are lighter than air. It stands for:
H - Hydrogen
H - Helium
H - Hydrogen Cyanide
H - Hydrogen Fluoride
M - Methane
E - Ethylene
D - Diborane
I - Illuminating Gases
C - Carbon Monoxide
A - Acetylene
N - Neon
N - Nitrogen
A - Ammonia
Many of these gases are not practical for use in balloons. The following combine poor lift with objectionable properties: carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, diborane, ethylene and acetylene. Nitrogen has negligible lift. Neon is harmless and offers a modest degree of lift; however it costs roughly the same as helium, another noble gas with far superior lift. The four remaining gases (ammonia, methane, helium, and hydrogen) have been used as balloon gases.
Ammonia has sometimes been used to fill weather balloons. Due to its relatively high boiling point (compared to helium and hydrogen), ammonia could potentially be refrigerated and liquified aboard an airship to reduce lift and add ballast (and returned to a gas to add lift and reduce ballast).
Methane (the chief component of natural gas) is sometimes used as a lift gas when hydrogen and helium are not available. It has the advantage of not leaking through balloon walls as rapidly as the small-moleculed hydrogen and helium. (Most lighter than air balloons are made of aluminized plastic that limits such leakage; hydrogen and helium leak rapidly through latex balloons.)
Hydrogen gas of course, but it is highly flammable. You can obtain hydrogen gas by electrolysis of water.
Anything that is lighter than air would be able to make a balloon rise. The only choices you have available are: hydrogen and helium (the two lightest gaseous elements in the periodic table).
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