What causes someone to intentionally try to hurt someone else?

if someone sets out to hurt another person, what is the motive for that?

There can be any reasons for that, but in general it may not be that the person sets out to cause pain as it is that the person has a narcissistic desire for a sense of power and the pleasure of exercising control over someone else's life. In many case, the victimizer does not see the victim as a person, but as an object to be used to get pleasure. These people may be psychopathic or antisocial.
Other reasons may be extreme anger and an inability and lack of social skills to resolve conflict.
I am reading a book right now about that. It is called "The Lucifer Effect". It is written by a professor who conducted an experiment many years ago, but which still applies to human nature. In the experiment, he assigned young men to be prisoners or guards in a make-believe prison. The "guards" started being very mean to the "prisoners" almost immediately. Many of the "prisoners" started immediately being very submissive and accepting the meanness of the "guards".

Being mean to others when the opportunity arises seems to be human nature, especially if it is condoned by someone with higher authority.
in 99 % cases is is cause of mood of taking revenge
You can't find any motive/reason to hurt someone intentionally.
It is the worst thing one can do for no gain except pain.
The reasons can vary. For me, certain people seem to incite violence in me; I have no idea what it is about them, but I just want to beat them up. I never act on the impulse, but it's a very strong feeling. And, mind you, I don't know any of these people; they're just people I see on the street.
When a person feels powerless and crappy about themselves they can only feel better about themselves when they see someone who is "worse"" in their view.When they hurt someone else they can feel better about themselves.
1)Jealousy, they want to have something you have, or to be you.
2)fear, of what might happen someday.
3)frustration, from living a life they don't like
4)low self-worth, they need something in their life they are able to control. it is easy to hurt someone.
5)trying to bring a person down to build the self up
6)a false sense of humanity, some part of them feels like their action is justifiable.
7)bully, they want to hurt you because they don't know how to act any other way, and you may seem vulnerable, an easy target.
I hope this helps you. Good luck.

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